Hindustani music is one of the major forms of Indian classical music, which is believed to be originated from Vedic ritual chants. Apart from India, Hindustani music can also be found in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Pakistan. Hindustani music is famous for its gorgeous tradition of Hindustani Gharanas, which are basically styles. There are different kinds of vocal forms or compositions associated with Hindustani music. Some of them are explained below:
- Dhrupad: Dhrupad composition is mainly related to male singers and is one of the oldest singing style. Tamburu and Pakhawaj are the two instruments used in Dhrupad style. They are basically devotional in nature.
- Khyal: The term Khyal means ‘thought’ and this composition is based on Dhrupad. A Khyal consist of two- to eight-line lyric set to a melody. In Hindustani music, Khyal composition is more related to emotional aspects of a person’s life.
- Tarana: In Indian music, Taranas are mainly played at the end of every music concert. They are usually medium or fast compositions, which are used to create a mood of delight for the audience.
- Tappa: Tappa is a kind of Indian semi-classical music, which is famous for its rolling pace with quick composition. Tappa was developed from the folk songs of Punjab’s camel riders.
- Thumri: Thumri is also another form of Indian semi-classical music, which is originated from Uttar Pradesh. Poorab ang, Lucknavi and Punjabi thumri are the three major types of thumris in Indian music. Thumris are basically romantic in nature and are written in a language called Brij Bhasha.
- Ghazal: Ghazals are a form of poetry, which is most common in Urdu language. There are different variations of Ghazals across Middle East and Central part of Asia. Some of the important forms of Ghazals are semi-classical, folk and pop. Ghazals are often performed with musical instruments.